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Functional Programming Language

Functional Programming Language

Functional programming is known as a programming prototype. It’sa way of structure program and elements of programming in computer that calculate the assessment of functions and escapealtering state and variable data. It’s a programming prototype which is done with terms or statements instead of declarations.

In (FP) program, the value of output functions rely only on its arguments, In FP an constructor argument with the same value of function always generate the same output. Eliminate the side effectsthat the function inputs do not rely on the changes in state, make a program easier, understanding.

FP is based on Lambda Calculus:
FP framework is known as Lambda calculus developed by Alonzo Church. It isknown as the smallest world programming language. It’s provide the definition of about computable. It has ability to compute and it is equivalent to Turing machine. It gives us a theoretically framework for defining functions and the evaluation of function. It is the basic part of almost all the current functional programming languages.

Programming Languages which support FP:

Haskell, JavaScript, Scala, Erlang, Lisp, ML, Common Lisp, Racket.

Concepts of FP language:

Pure functions , Repeated or Recursion, Transparency referential, Functions and First class and can be higher order.

Pure functions: 

There are 2 main properties of pure function. Firstly, they generates the same results for same argumentinspective of anything else. Second property of the pure function is that, they have no side effects which theyexpand any arguments or results or global variables or another.Other property is known as immutable. They are determinant. In functional programming the programming functions are easy to debug because there are no hidden I/O or side effects of pure functions. They easily to write current or parallel applications. When we write the code in this style the flexible compiler can do many other things it can be parallelto generate/check results, instructions when we use them, and memorizing the results at last the results do not change as long time period as per user input does not change.


There will be no loops(for loop) or (while loop) in FP language. In FP the arguments is implemented with the help of recursion. Recursive functions call their own recursive function, while function reaches the basic cases.

Referential transparency:

In functional programs (FP) once we define the variable it doesn’t replace their value passes the program. In Functional programs there are no assignment statements. If we want to store values in functions, we declared new variables accordingly.

First Class and can be Higher Order: 

First class programming languagefunctions are like first variable of a class. Inthe first class programming language functionsthe variables can be shared to functions as parameter, functions can be returned its parametersor stored in data structure. Higher order functions are like the functions which takes the other functions as object arguments and functions they can be return.

Variables are Immutable: 

In functional programming, after initialized a variable we can’t modify. It can generate new variables other term we can say that we cannot generatetheir own variables, and it helps to work and maintain the state out of the dubbing of a program.

Functional Programming (FP) Advantages and Disadvantages:


  1. Programming functions are easily too understandable since they will not change their situations and it depends simply the input values which the user provide. In this signature function provides all the data information about that is their own return type.
  2. Its languages has ability to give functions with required values and passed send them to functions as constructors or parameters for making the code program more easily to read and easily human understandable.
  3. In Functional Programming testing the programs functions and debugging means code is working according to functions are simply easier. The functions needs only constructor or arguments and provide the results, they will not generate any changes do not takes the input or show some hidden results. It uses absolute values, so it is easy and simple to identify errors in code which is written in it.
  4. Its helps in development the parallelism due to the function programming do not change any other attributes or variables or any other type of data that is outside of the program.


  1. The readability of code can be reduced by the pure functions.
  2. Writing the programs in the style of recursive while the using the loops can bit terribly.
  3. When writing of pure functions it is easy to write but when we combine them is is difficult task because of the rest of application and I/O operations.
  4. Immutable values or recursive values can be lead to dismiss in performance.
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